History of Kazakhstan

The Republic of Kazakhstan is located in the heart of the Eurasian continent. By coincidence, this region was little available to the outside world, and as a result, the interest of travelers rose in it.
Our travel agency, "ORIENT MICE", offers tours to all comers in Kazakhstan. You will enjoy the cultural, environmental, and historical tours and learn a lot of interesting secrets and stories about the ancient state.

For the guests of this country, it will be interesting to see absolutely everything. Starting from nature and ending with the history of the country's life and culture,
There were primitive people once, a long time ago. Archaeologists are still excavating and have found the remains and household utensils of primitive people.

Our guides can show you some of these sites on the historic trip that you take in order to see the rock carvings and have the unique possibility of going there where once the ancient people lived. For example, you can take in the Bayanaul area or in the valley of the Bukhtarma River, where the primitive people of the Stone Age were.
Do you want to visit the New Stone Age?! Our guides know about two hundred such types of sites and will be glad to tell you about some of them on historical tours of


In the age of bronze, people were engaged in mining ore and smelting metal across the central part of the Republic of Kazakhstan. People moved to the nomadic way of life and began to form tribal alliances. It happened in the first millennium BC. formed tribes such as the Saks, Sauromats, Caspians and many others.
Somewhere at the same time, in the south-west of Kazakhstan, were established states such as Bactria and Sogd, where culture and trade flourished.
In the 3rd–4th centuries BC, new tribes appeared, namely, the Alans and Kangüy Usuns. They lived in the Lake Balkhash area, in the foothills of Karatau and the spurs of the Tian Shan.
People began to build feudal relations in the 6th century BC. In the same century, the Great Silk Road was formed, which conducted a very active trade. At that time, silk was the special item for trade.
We will tell you a little bit about some of the cities through which the Great Silk Road passed, and our guides will tell you more about these cities and the history of their origins in the historical tour.
In the historical tour, we will tell you a little bit about some of the cities through which the Great Silk Road passed, and our guides will tell you in more detail about these cities and the history of their origins.
Kayalyk City refers to the 10th–13th centuries.It was the capital of the great Kalukskih Jhabgu. This city has been very popular among traders. In addition, it was very religious. There are mosques and Manichaean Buddhist temples.
Archaeologists 220 km from the city of Taldykorgan have found traces of the city. Due to the excavations, a Buddhist temple that dates to the 13th century was found.
Also, archaeologists found Chinese ceramics, Iranian chandeliers, Syrian glass, and much more.
The hillfort is still explored, and it has the status of "cultural heritage of Kazakhstan."

Otrar is located in the Syrdarya valley, and in the book he refers to it as "the Otrar oasis."
In ancient times, this city was called differently: Turar, Tarband, Farab, Turarband, etc.
By the way, at a time when the city was called Farab, the great philosopher and scientist Abu Nasr al-Farabi was born.
In the years 1219–1220, Otrar was constantly attempting to capture Genghis Khan's forces, and in 1405, the great conqueror and leader, Amir Temur, was killed in this city.
There are centuries-old ruins here. This is all that remained of the great city, which was constantly attacked.
An interesting fact is that there was an international UNESCO project entitled "Conservation and preservation of the ancient city of Otrar" conducted in 2001–2004.
To this day, in this place there is still restoration work on the restoration of mosques, potteries, high walls, and baths.
The first mention of the city was in the 10th century. This city came across the geographer Ibn Haukal. In the 15th century, it was held by the army of Amir Temur.
Near Syutkentom, they found traces of two ancient hillforts that date back to the 13th and 15th centuries. They do not have names.
The history of this city spans more than two thousand years. One of the most ancient cities in Kazakhstan was known as the "City of Merchants" and enters into a historical tour of Kazakhstan.
Historians have discovered that the first mention of the city relates to the 6th century.
In the year 568, Taraz was under the rule of the great Turkic khanate of Dizabula-Istimi. By the 7th century, the city played an important role on the Great Silk Road. Through it passed the caravans, and there was a flurry of trade in souvenirs, materials, and household goods.
Taraz served as a hub for Turgesh and, later, Karluk Kaganates.
In the 9th and 10th centuries, due to the fact that the ancient city of Kazakhstan ran the Great Silk Road, it began to develop culturally and economically.
You can read about this city by clicking on the link (www.).
Ispidzhab (Sairam)
Ispidzhab, one of the largest ancient cities included in the Great Silk Road cities of Kazakhstan, For the first time, it is mentioned in the records of Xuan Zang (629). At the time, it was called "The City on the White River."
Sairam was able to survive until the present day, and archaeologists working with scientists were able to prove that it dated back to the ancient Ispidzhab.
The city is included in the historical tourist trips of Kazakhstan, and guides from our agency will be happy to hold a historical tour of its streets and mosques.
The city is included in the program of "Cultural Heritage of Kazakhstan" and there are a very large number of sacred tombs. Some of which have been perfectly preserved to the present day.For example, the tomb of Ibrahim Ata (13–19 cc) and Hodge Taliga (13–19 centuries) Also, it remained a nameless ancient minaret from the 13th–19th centuries.


Sygnak, the ancient city of the 10th century, In the 12th century, the city became the capital of the state association of Kipchak. The city was constantly conquered and destroyed. In the 14th century, Sygnak became the capital of the Ak-Orda.
The city began under the reign of Khan Erzen. And during their rule, there was a stable development of architectural monuments and mints.

Sygnak was regarded as a city with both political and strategic importance, as well as economic potential.There was constant seething trade. It sold grain, fabric, crafts, and a variety of luxury items.

Today, there is only one dry bare steppe around the settlement. And nothing indicates that there were times when the city was green and there was active life.


Suyab was one of the most famous ancient cities in Kazakhstan. It was the capital of Karluk, a Western and Turkic Turkish state.
The first information about the town's date was from the 7-8th century. They have been found in Chinese sources.

There, as in any other ancient city of Kazakhstan, were many wars. Each tried to seize the city and come to power.

Due to the excavations, temples and mosques were discovered. Historical excavations led to the discovery of these lands in the citadel (10–12 century) and several Buddhist temples that belonged to the 8–9 centuries.
Suyab: This is a very ancient city. By this day, the site has been excavated and archaeologists have successfully found something interesting regarding the life and development of the settlement. They discovered churches and Nestorian monasteries, for example (8-10th century).

Kok Kesene

It's a mausoleum (14th–15th century), which was photographed by an archaeologist, V. Kallaur.
In 1914, a memorial mausoleum collapsed, and there remained only the ruins of the southern arch.

Also, pieces of decoration were found among the ruins along with a tiled mosaic with a beautiful range of iridescent colours.
Regarding the photographs, the mausoleum has a square shape with blue cone-shaped domes. It was the crypt, but for whom it was intended, scientists could not figure it out.
According to one view, it is believed that the mausoleum was built for one Khan named Abul Khair, who was considered the grandson of the great commander Amir Temur.


Ancient city on the Sauran border founded by tribes such as the Kimaks and Oguz.
These merchants came to trade, as well as in the city, and carried out the peace treaties of friendship and harmony among the tribes.
The ancient city was very well fortified. Its high walls protected the strong and mighty fortress. He could stand a lot of sieges, even those that had lasted for several months.

Its ruins are located just west of Turkestan, and it is included in the program of "Cultural Heritage of Kazakhstan."

The first mention was in 943, when the city was captured and the Karakhanids adopted Islam as their religion. The city is called Balasaguni.
There is a little information about this town. Just a few records are kept about it.
It is known that it was conquered by Karakitaj in 1130 and then Khorezm Shah-Muhammad came to power.

By some accounts, it is believed that the city already existed in the 13th century, but these sources do not have direct evidence.
Balasagun considers Buran equal to the ancient hillfort of Buran, which was located not far from Tokmak, but already on the territory of Kyrgyzstan.
According to one legend, Noah's ark stopped during the flood exactly in this place.
This place is located 40 km from the Kazakh city of Shymkent, in the spurs of the Talas Alatau.

Per se, the place is overflowing with legends and mysteries. The people living in these places called the land "Kemekalganom" and were always ready to tell tourists a new legend or secret.

During the archaeological excavations, more than 30 historic monuments were found.
Among the rocks, people can only pass with a clear mind and good thoughts through a cave.

Also, you can observe some rocks that were named after the Biblical stories of Adam and Eve. A little way, there is a natural complex called Shilter-ata.
Likewise, you can learn about a lot of interesting places and some not-less interesting stories about their origin and existence.


Saraychik is located on the right bank of the river Zhaiyk, about 55 km north of Atyrau. It was founded by Batu Khan in the 13th century.

The Great Silk Road passed through this place, and it was mentioned in the chronicles of various traders who came here from almost all over the world.
Saraychik was one of the main political centers. The procedure when Janibek, Berdibek, and many others from the Juchid dynasty entered the throne of the Golden Horde happened there.
Due to the main ruler, Khan Burke, there was accepted Islam. At that time, it was the rapid development of the ancient city.


Not far from Kyzylorda, up to now, have been able to survive the ruins of one of the ancient cities of Kazakhstan-Jenda. Locals call it Gian Kala.
The area of the town was 40 hectares. On its plan, it was built from a single main street, which at the time had already branched into lanes.
Also, the city wall and the citadel were well preserved, with towers up to 8 meters in height.

Near the hillfort, the palace of the ruler Jenda was built, a memorial complex of trapezoidal shape.
Jenda lasted until the ages of 15–16. For all its time of development, this city was considered the center of the Aral Sea region on the roads to Khorezm.

The first mention of the city is found in the records of the king, Getum 1 (Guyton), in 1254. He called it Inlanbalahom, which means "The City on the river Ili."
There is no exact location of the city, but archaeologists during their excavations found traces of settlement on one of the banks of the Ili River, and they believe that this is the city of Ilibalyk.

Many of the Kazakh Khanates (16th–17th century) represented feudal states. There were no laws and litigation, and there was no territorial pressure. Management was going through the race, and always stood at the head of the khans and their children.
Only a few classes exist in Kazakh society: the feudal lords and peasants.
The mainstays of such states were cattle breeding and agriculture. However, agriculture was not as advanced and popular as breeding livestock.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the conquest of Russia began, and in the 40s of the 17th century, it was decided to re-create some of the fortress walls with a citadel in Arytau (Guryev), Yaik (Uralsk), Ust-Kamenogorsk, etc.
At that time, these cities were a trade link between the major countries: India, China, Russia, and Iran with Central Asia.

After the 18th century, Kazakhstan consisted of separate khanates. Then began the internecine war between the small states. Everyone was trying to seize more territory.

In the 19th century, Russia's influence increased greatly in terms of the economy and lifestyle of the Kazakhs, who became sedentary.
Small factories are sprouting up, as are gold mines and a mining industry.
People began to rebel because of the poverty. Also, England began to encroach on Kazakhstan.

In the second half of the 19th century, the Kazakh intelligentsia gradually began to form the Kazakh intelligentsia, as well as the more common Russian culture.
The First World War brought great distress to the Kazakh people. People lost livestock and food. In addition, taxes have increased. And all of the healthy people were pushed to the back of the line.

From 1939 to 1941, Kazakhstan became the center of development for the extraction and production of oil, coal, and non-ferrous metals.

In 1941-1945, in the Great Patriotic War, Kazakhstan rose to defend the fatherland against the German fascist invaders.
In 1946 the Republic passed to peace-building (building factories, schools, and military objects of strategic purpose).

In 1954, the development of virgin and fallow lands began.
In 1991, there were created new decrees: "On the transition of state enterprises and organizations subordinate to the Union under the jurisdiction of the Government of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic," "On Education of the Kazakh SSR of the Security Council," etc.

In autumn 1991, the Communist Party was dissolved.
On December 16, 1991, the laws "On the Constitution of the Republic" were enacted, and in 1995, the current Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was officially adopted.

Today, the Republic of Kazakhstan is a great state with a presidential form of government in which a person is considered the highest ideal and has all their rights and freedom.

The capital of the state is Astana. Kazakh is the official language.The area is 2,724,900 square meters. km. There are more than 14,820,900 people in the area. The religions that are practiced in Kazakhstan are Islam, Catholicism, and Christianity.

The traditions and customs of the Kazakh people have been and always will be hospitality, respect for the older generation, tolerance and peacefulness.
Our travel agency, "Orient Mice", is pleased to provide you with professional guides and comfortable transport in order to ensure that the tour brings you only positive emotions.

Kazakhstan (general details)

Kazakhstan is a unique state located in the center of Eurasia. Most of it belongs to Asia, and the smaller part belongs to Europe. Our travel agency, "Orient Mice," offers tour packages all over Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan is primarily a spacious steppe with mountain peaks, a little part of the woodland, rivers, and emerald lakes with rich flora and fauna.
Kazakhstan is a nation of the ancient civilization of the Eurasian continent. The Great Silk Road went through, and numerous migrant tribes started their journey from that point. On the historic trip across Kazakhstan, you will learn more about the trails of the Great Silk Road. Specifically, what cities in Kazakhstan embraced and how business was conducted in those cities

Historical tours cover the whole of Kazakhstan since there are about 27,000 memorial monuments and historical sights scattered in every city of this great province. From the stories of our professional guides, you will learn more extensively about all the monuments of ancient architecture and their history and development.
Kazakhstan is home to a number of outstanding personalities.

The Republic of Kazakhstan's national flag is a rectangular blue canvas in which the sun is spoken to with 32 beams and a steppe falcon takes flight under the sun.
In the middle, the national emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is situated on the shanyrak (round yurt on top of the vault). From it, in all directions, diverge the uyki (support) as sunbeams. The wings of mythical horses frame all this.
If you thoroughly understand each of these elements, the image shanyrak represents a home jointly shared with all people. Shankara's well-being and happiness depend on each other, just as Shankara's strength depends on the strength of his legs.
The mythical horse that is depicted in the State Emblem of Kazakhstan is Tulpa. Wings of the horse: the dream of building a great, prosperous and powerful state. They symbolize pure thoughts, harmony with nature and world civilization, as well as the pursuit of perfection.

Two mythical horses on the coat of arms-a talisman, Shandrak.
By the way, these horses were decorated with a helmet from Issyk the Golden Man.
The blue color of the coat of arms of the Republic of Kazakhstan signifies a bright future. It imitates the color of the clear sky above the people.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is considered to be a unitary state. The government is the President. Kazakhstan: a legal, secular, democratic state for which the ultimate value is the human being.

Kazakhstan is at the crossroads of several continents: Asia and Europe. Kazakhstan is ranked ninth in the world in terms of land area.It borders countries such as Uzbekistan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and China.
The entire territory of Kazakhstan is situated in four climate zones: desert, semi-desert, and the steppe zone. The most extensive is considered the steppe zone.
In Kazakhstan, there are more than 8,500 extensive and little streams and 48,000 substantial and little lakes. Its northern part is washed by the Caspian Sea. Namely, there are a few extensive lakes in the resort. such as Balkhash, Borovo, Zaisan, Tengiz, Alakol, and others.

Area: 2,724,000 sq. km.
Capital: Astana
Head of State: President
Population: more than 17 million people.
Religion: Islam, Christianity
Languages: Kazakh, Russian
Currency: tenge
Internet domain:.kz

The main organs of power are a bicameral Parliament, the Senate, and the Majilis.
Kazakhs are very hospitable people. Respect for the guests is always above all, and peacefulness is instilled from childhood by parents from everlasting. In this country, there have never been cases involving religious or ethnic conflicts.

Kazakhstan's population

The Republic of Kazakhstan is a crowded nation, where the population density is equivalent to 6.3 individuals per sq. km area.
As indicated by the last information (2015), 17,651,852 individuals live in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Indigenous peoples (Kazakhs) make up 63.01% of the population.

Uzbeks (3.07%), Ukrainians (1.7%), Russians (21.05%), Tatars (1.17%), Germans (1.1%), and so forth.

The population evaluation in the Republic of Kazakhstan is done like clockwork.
According to the 1996 census, the population of Kazakhstan amounted to 15.544 million. And according to the results of the population census in 2015, the number of rights and equal people rose to 1,107,852... Whereby we can say that there is a solid trend of population growth. The average standard of living has increased, which has decreased emigration.

Almaty (population: more than 1.5 million people) is the most populous city in Kazakhstan.The second is the city of Astana (828, 000 individuals), followed by Shymkent (more than 600,000 individuals), and so forth.

Kazakhstan's national currency

Tenge is considered the national currency of Kazakhstan. Today, Kazakhstan has coins: 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 tenge and paper money: 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000 tenge.

On November 12, 1993, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan decided to introduce a national currency. The first coins were produced in Germany, and the first banknotes in England. November 15 is considered day currency in Kazakhstan. Since it was on this day that the first money was introduced in the country,
In 2006, it was one of the biggest scandals linked to the country's currency. The National Bank has decided to hold a competition for the best symbol of the national currency, and the winner will receive a million tenge.

Nevertheless, it turned out that the symbol of the winner was completely copied from the mail symbols of Japan, which have been used for over a hundred years.
Until traveling to the Republic of Kazakhstan, it is better to choose dollars, rubles, or euros. It is more convenient to change to tenge and you will not have problems in the exchange offices.

If you do not want to be deceived, it is best to change currency in banks or at the airport. You do not lose much, but gain confidence that you are not being deceived by the exchange rate.

During your trip, you can also use plastic cards like MasterCard or VISA. They work in shops and anywhere in the country, no matter where you have been.