Culture of Kazakhstan

The modern Kazakhstan is the Republic of Kazakhstan, which originated from ancient traditions and customs, which is now making all efforts to preserve folk crafts, rituals, ancient sports, traditions, and archaeological sites of the country.
The traditions and customs of the Republic of Kazakhstan originate from distant ancient times. There, in yurts, are always welcome guests. They poured hot tea with milk and served dostarkhan, a national dish.

Yurt: a portable housing unit used by Kazakhs since ancient times.Today, the shepherds live here. Yurt: This is a very comfortable home that is ready to withstand all weather conditions. It can be easy to assemble, and it takes up little space. The yurt includes items such as kerege (grating base), uyk (cloth dome), and shanyrak (top round dome shape).

Kazakhs have always paid great attention to their national adornments and drawings. Therefore, the yurt is always decorated with carpets and various embroidery.
Everyday objects used by Kazakhs include: metal products, wood and bone, sledges, felt carpets, ladles, bowls for koumiss and other national dairy beverages, flasks, whips, belts. Those things are decorated with beautiful national ornaments and leather.

Jewelers, or whatever they are called differently, "steppe zergers," love to work with silver. They are considered great masters in the production of jewelry. popular earrings in the form of bells, and various suspensions in the form of crescents and bracelets-bleziki. They are connected by the ring due to a very thin chain.
Kazakh national clothing differs significantly.

They are different and diverse. It all depends on the region of origin. The basis of the difference in the ornamental embroidery In general, men's clothing consists of a robe with a belt, a skullcap (felt hats), or hats with earflaps. In the women's national costume, which includes dresses, jackets, and hats with silk scarves,
The people of Kazakhstan are very fond of music and everything connected with it. They respectfully refer to "akyns" as poets, or another name for improvisers.

In the Republic of Kazakhstan, people like to attend international concerts and various competitions in songs and games on national instruments.
Holidays in Kazakhstan are celebrated, as they say, "on a grand scale." One of the most popular is "Nauryz" ("New Year").

Nauryz is a very ancient holiday that has been celebrated in Kazakhstan for over 5,000 years. This is a celebration of spring and the renewal of nature.
According to various historical records that have been found by scientists and archaeologists during excavations, it became known that Nauryz met not only in the works of ancient authors but also in medieval times.

National Games-a separate paragraph in the lives of Kazakhs The ancient national games are allocated special attention and respect. popular games such as "Kyz kuu" (catch the girl), "kazaksha kures" (Kazakh wrestling), "Alty Bakan" (swing in six pillars), "kokpar" (riders try to grab and pull out each other's carcass goat) and "bayga" (horse racing at a distance of 25 to 100 km).

The Cuisine of Kazakhstan

The cuisine of Kazakhstan is very rich in its range of delicious national dishes and drinks. Tea with milk or cream, baursaks and Kurt, shubat, mare and ayran, kazi, musk deer, and shuzhuk. And of course, all this is inconceivable to imagine without a flapjack made of wheat flour.

The main decoration of any table has always been the meat, a la Kazakh. This meat is cooked and served to the guests in fully separated pieces. If the guest of honor is a ram's head, then he gets the tidbit. After that, the guest divides the head among the other guests with special rituals by themselves.
In addition, beshbarmak is one of the main dishes, which is made from lamb, beef, or horsemeat. The meat is served with thinly sliced boiled dough pieces and meat broth.

In addition, mare's milk is considered a very healing drink in Kazakhstan. It helps in treating the gastrointestinal tract and in the treatment of all kinds of lung diseases.
Shubat is also a milk drink, which is in contrast to the koumiss made from camel milk. In its medicinal properties, it is not inferior to koumiss, and if shubat insists for three days, then it will be even better. In every region, shumat has its own name. It is known as kymyran in some places and Tuye kymyz in others.However, despite the different names, the method of its preparation and medicinal properties remain unchanged.

Modern Kazakh cuisine includes not only traditional dishes and recipes passed down through generations, but also meals from other countries.Increasingly popular are Uighur, Russian, Uzbek, and Tatar cuisines.
But at the same time, from ancient times to the present day, the meat has been the main attribute of dastarkhan. He is given the greatest attention in preparation and storage.

Bread products are usually made from wheat flour. Flat cakes and baursaks are very popular.

Kazakhstani national clothing

Kazakh national dress has a history that reflects the life and embodies the lifestyle of the Kazakh people from ancient times.

During several centuries, the national dress evolved with strong external differences from the simple everyday clothes of Kazakhs.
Such clothing is decorated with ornaments, embroidery, and fur animals. Skilled artisans using special export materials made clothes. Such as velvet, brocade, satin, and silk.

Usually, for coats, sheepskin coats and hats were used for livestock fur. It is the fur of goats, sheep, stallions, and camels. Firstly, the skin was dried and treated with ayran and flour. Then, the skin is wrapped and stacked in the salty water. To purchase a white skin treated with a special solution of chalk.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, cotton fabrics came into vogue.
Women's hats and clothes

Koylek (dress-shirt): women's close-bodied clothing resembling a modern tunic. The dress was made from a whole piece of cloth, which was folded in half and cross-linked to the sides. The sleeves were wide and straight. Koylek had a hollow collar.
Camisole (kemzal)-swing the clothes sewed on the figure of the girl. The camisole sleeveless had the name "zhensiz", and with sleeves, "zhendi".

Young girls wore camsolas that were sewn with brightly colored materials. They were decorated with embroidery and had no stitches on the shoulders.
Stockings were made of thick cotton fabric or sheepskin and had a few species. Shalbar-upper and dalbar-bottom pants.

They were shorter. The length was just below the knee.
Sapa-outerwear in a wide robe with long sleeves. They were sewed either with a warmed lining or without it. Depending on the time of year,
Robes were open-collared and decorated with embroidery and other embellishments. Sapa was made of expensive fabric and sometimes even used strips of fur.
Hats were indicators of marital status. If a woman was married, they were more beautiful and richly decorated, in contrast to the girlish.

Hats were of several types: skullcaps (takyya) and warm fur hats (borik).
Robes were open-collared and decorated with embroidery and other embellishments. Sapa was made of expensive fabric and sometimes even used strips of fur.
Hats were indicators of marital status. If a woman was married, they were more beautiful and richly decorated, in contrast to the girlish.

Hats were of several types: skullcaps (takyya) and warm fur hats (borik).
Men's hats and clothes

Warm men's clothing was without much variety. Most frequently, it was a coupe of sheep or camel wool and sheepskin or fur (Ishik).
The skullcap was considered an indispensable headdress, and it was accepted to be worn only on a shaved head. Over the skullcaps, men wear other headgear, depending on the time of year.

For the warm season, sewed clothes of the more delicate and expensive material, that the similar as women was decorated by national ornaments and other ornaments.

Kazakhstan's National Wedding

At all times, wedding traditions have always attracted attention worldwide. Very interesting customs, rituals, and processes for weddings. It is always interesting to compare weddings between Europeans, Asians, Africans, and Americans. However, they all have one thing in common.young family is created that will continue the human race. Therefore, it was in ancient times, so it continues today and will continue in the future.

The wedding traditions of the Kazakhs are very interesting. For instance, a young man will never ask for the hand of his lover. This honor is given to the wife of the elder brother of the groom.

These customs come from ancient times.
On a certain day, matchmakers come to the bride with gifts. Relatives of the groom put the ring on the bride's finger, after which begins a viewing of the bride and ransom of the bride.

When the bride's family begins to ask for a ransom, it is thought to be the last stride before the wedding, and after that, neither side can deny the marriage. For the redemption, use a necklace with a ring and earrings.

During the ransom of a bride, a special guest sings ritual songs called "Toy Bastar".
There is a blessing for the newlyweds from the oldest elders.

On the night before the wedding, friends come to the bride. They bake various treats, such as cakes, meat, and kuyrdak, until the morning.

On the morning of the wedding day, the groom comes to the bride's house (which is at the neighbors'). They dance and sing as long as they are preparing besbarmak.
After the main dish is ready, the bride comes. The bride's brother binds her handkerchief. It is a sign of obedience and faithfulness to her husband.

The bride is brought into a new house before the wedding night, and while the guests are having fun, she and her mother-in-law are in a special room.
The bride arrives at the end of the wedding night, the following morning, to greet visitors and relatives, her face covered with a special handkerchief. She constantly bows to guests, and the guests sing "Ashar bet."

Every marriage has its own attributes and traditions, which depend on the family as well as on the conditions, in addition to the area of the wedding ceremony.

National Games in Kazakhstan

There are a large number of national games in Kazakhstan. Approximately all of them came into the modern world from ancient times and, to this day, are still considered very interesting and popular.

"Kyz kuu", translated as "Chase the Girl". The game itself is very popular at wedding ceremonies. The task of the rider is to catch up with his fiancee, who jumps in front of him on a horse. If the groom cannot do it, then he is forced to abandon the bride.
Most of the games are associated with jumps. Thus, men can show not only their speed and strength, but also their agility and wit. "Zhorga-zharyse" (jump to the Pacers), "koklare" or "kopkar" (horserace of the two groups for the carcass of a mountain goat), "horseman zharyse" (on the speed of overcoming obstacles), "zhaugashty" (precipitate loop opponent), "Kokpar" or "audaraspak" (tug of each other out of the saddle).
"Baiga" (the racing over long distances). There are several types, depending on the number of riders: "Kuna zharys" (1-2 riders), "top bayga" (3-4 riders), and "Toy zharys" (1-2 riders).

"Koumiss alu" or "Tenge alu". Some kind of a very interesting game in which the riders throw a couple of bags of silver and money. At the same time, riders do not have to stop and pick up the bags.
In addition to the adult games, there are a number of national children's games that are just as interesting and fun.

"Angelek". Children are divided into two teams and line up opposite each other. The game begins with the verse:
"Aigolek, Aigolek!"
The moon is as white as snow.
Over the mountains, faster than rivers,
We are gaining the race.
Over the mountains, faster than rivers,
Who is the right person? "

The second team is responsible:
"Aigolek, Aigolek
The moon is as white as snow.
Over the mountains, faster than rivers,
That's (the name) the right person. "

The player, who was named, should have run to break the chain of rivals. If he does not get it done, then the team takes it upon themselves. And if he breaks the circuit, this person brings one person to his team. The team that has more people is the winner.

The player, who was named, should have run to break the chain of rivals. If he does not get it done, then the team takes it upon themselves. And if he breaks the circuit, this person brings one person to his team. The team that has more people is the winner.

AtbakylThe guys take turns throwing asyk. If the second player hits the first player's asyk with his asyk, then the first player carries the second player on his back to his stone. The game has no end.

"kotomek". In the middle of the field, a few players come out after the signal that they need to pick up each other for some time. Whoever does this, he is the winner.
"Takiyeh tastamak". Children sit in a circle. Leading quietly leaves one of the players behind a skullcap. If one of their backs notices this, then he should try to catch the lead until he takes his place in the circle. If the player does not catch up with the lead, then according to the rules, he has to sing a song or tell a verse, and then he becomes a master.

The customs of birth in Kazakhstan

"Balaly yd bazaar, balasyz yd mazar"
"The house with the child-joy and happiness,
"A day without a child is like being in a tomb."
In Kazakhstan, the birth of a child is treated with the utmost respect and attention. This event is very happy and long expected.

Kazakhs have a very wide variety of traditions that are associated with the birth of the little man. The customs associated with childbirth are connected to these centuries-old beliefs.

Not all the rituals that occur in infancy carry a gender specificity, so the kids up to 5 years old, regardless of their gender, are educated and grow up together.
No matter who found out that the family had a new family member, try the first to inform relatives and for his congratulations and good news-he received a gift.
Every night for 40 days, it is placed near the crib light. Light from shary is believed to ward off evil spirits. Clothing a baby is a material, which takes either the elderly or the family, where there are a large number of kids there. After the first 40 days, the child wore a special ritual shirt titled "it koylek".

For the kid, they select a "second mother," that is, a godmother. The Kazakhs decided to call it "kyndyk Sesa." For all the magical beliefs, its energy is transferred to the child, so it should be honest, educated, and very energetic.

This practice falls on the shoulders of kindik Sesa. When placing the baby in the cradle, she covers the child's special things. At the bottom (if it's a boy), the godmother puts a knife and a whip. And if it's a girl, the mirror and comb.
After 40 days, the Kazakhs have another tradition, kolzha. Kolzha is a ritual feast for a mother after childbirth. All dishes are prepared especially for the mother of the child so that she gains strength. Meals are prepared from young sheep. A bone cervical vertebra is mounted on a stick, which is in the half of the yurt that is especially reserved for the mother until the moment when the child begins to hold his or her own head.

At Coy (Azan Shakyr). The older elders, at dawn, with the Morning Prayer, chose the name of the child. And as he reads the prayer, the oldest village elder says three times the name of the child's ear.
Kyrkynan shygaru-is the next practice, which follows kolzhy. This practice begins, depending on the sex of the child. If a boy was born (on the night before), and if a girl was born (then one day later), That is when she will have completed her 41 days of work.This is to ensure that the boy is growing hale and strong. A girl, docile and calm.

Parents bathe their toddlers in salt water, which is then poured from special ritual spoons.
In the bowl of salt water are placed silver coins (a gift to those women who were responsible for bathing the child).
After bathing, the child is tonsured, and after the completion of the whole ritual, they all hand out gifts and cakes.
Tusa kesu. The most energetic guest bandaged the child's legs. A wool cord was cut and burned. It serves as a symbol that the child is entering a new life. So he can go his way with pride, despite all the difficulties and experiences that will fall on his shoulders.
There are a number of practices that relate to babies. For example,
• Don't forbid the newborn (you don't want to jinx the baby).
• The cradle without a baby should not be swung (it can be a self-fulfilling misfortune);
• If young parents came to the house with the baby, it was necessary to give candies to the child before they left.

Predator hunting with birds of prey

Hunting with birds of prey in Kazakhstan originated in ancient times. This is evidenced by historical manuscripts and archaeological excavations, which tell us about the life and development of the ancient people.
In the past, hunting with birds of prey was a matter for the nobility, upper class people. The hunt began in Europe and quickly spread throughout India, China, and Persia.

Tribal and clan associations were engaged in this kind of hunting on the territory of ancient Kazakhstan.
There is always an appreciation for falcons and golden eagles, which were considered sacred birds.

Today, hunting with birds of prey is not only an ancient form of hunting but also an exciting show.

Of course, over the centuries, many of the rules, traditions, and customs that are closely linked with hunting have been almost forgotten. At the same time, people are trying not to forget about national hunting, and today, every effort is being made to revive it again.

To get people interested in this kind of national hunting, almost every holiday, as well as the National Natural Park, is presented with falcons and eagles to show the power, grace, strength, and speed of these stunning birds.
Hunting with birds of prey is a passion for chamber music, a tribute to the tradition that goes into the national ancient culture.

In order for the birds to show their skills, you need to take a small, fledgling chick, from which you will subsequently bring up a bird that will trust you, but it will not lose its wild instincts to hunt. The process of education and training lasts for a few years.

With saker falcons, you can easily go hunting foxes and jackals. With a goshawk, you can get carcass rabbits, ducks, and pheasants.
Wild game Barbary falcon Shaheen has partridges and pigeons, as well as the mountain turkey.

The birds of hunting are reborn again. There are special places where they grow beautiful game birds.

For example, it is the nursery of birds of prey "Sunkar". "Sunkar", a Kazakhword translated as "falcon", the nursery for birds of prey "Sunkar" is located not far from the southern capital of Kazakhstan, Almaty, in the Grand Valley. The nursery is a natural attraction in the Republic of Kazakhstan and is included in the natural tour of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The nursery was established in 1989 and, today, it has existed for over 25 years. The main task of its cultivation and production is considered to be the will of most of the birds, which are currently listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan as endangered species. It's Saker Falcon.

In just a few decades, there have been about 2,060 saker falcons cultivated and freedom has been issued to more than 700 individuals.
Also, other birds of prey are growing. This kumai and eagle owl, golden eagle, and burial bird are all endangered species.

Since 2006, the nursery has held a one-of-a-kind show with birds of prey on the observation deck. It features seven species of birds of prey that demonstrate hunting techniques to visitors.

Folk songs from Kazakhstan

Great attention is paid to folklore in Kazakhstan, as well as to music in general. The musical art of Kazakhstan has an interesting tradition: it is more often a solo.
There are many fascinating legends associated with musical creativity. For instance, one of them narrates that the song was hovering over the steppes of Kazakhstan and had fallen so low that people could hear it. Anyone who could hear the notes of a beautiful melody was gifted with a talent.

In Kazakhstan, people are very fond of music. They sing here and there, all over the place!Starting from little children and up to the elderly,
Each clan has a specific set of genres, repertoire, and musical instruments.
Children adored handmade clay tools. Namely, syrnae, uskirike, and tastauke.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, poetic and musical improvisation were widely developed in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The repertoire consisted of a wide variety of music, but all the same, the main direction was considered love poetry.

Music adorned the ancient tales with a background presence in its early stages of development.In folk memory, they preserved a very large number of such stories: "Er Targyn", "Goat-Korpesh and Bayan Sulu", "Alpamys", "Enlik and Québec", "Koblandy" and many others.

There is one more interesting Kazakh legend. At this time, it is associated with a musical instrument. It is believed that once upon a time, in Kazakh land, lived a man by the name of Korkut.

There is an assumption that he was very intelligent and that everyone needed his advice. In addition, there is a rumor that he was the creator of the first musical instrument, called "kobyz," and he is the author of the very first song, "kui."
Kui is a musical work dedicated to birds and animals.

The image of the first instrument was found in several notes, and the researchers suggest that this instrument came to the Kazakh steppes from Byzantium or from Spain.

In the traditional musical culture, besides kombyza, other instruments found their own audience, such as konyrau, braid syrnay, dauylpaz, zhetygen, sherter, Asatayak dombyra, and others.

Akyns are folk singers who perform their songs with a dombra.In most cases, they sang in bands but were also single-singles. The art was in their improvisations.
Famous singers who sank into history were Ahmet Baitursynov, Birjan Kozhagulov, Kenen Azerbaev, Akhan-sere Koramsin and many others.

For Kazakhs, music is very closely connected with life and existence in general. Music is present at birth, weddings, and funeral rituals.
Every day, the music playing in Kazakhstan unites generations and epochs, thus linking the past with the present.