Kyrgyzstan (history and place in world culture)

The Republic of Kyrgyzstan is located in territory that is considered the land of ancient hearths. On this land, cities had their origins in ancient times, since the Stone Age.

Ancient civilizations such as the Saks, Davan state, Usuns, and Hun state existed and developed on the Republic's territory. They originated in the 3rd–5th centuries BC.

In 3–4 centuries BC, the people of modern Kyrgyzstan were part of the nomadic tribal unions. In 1-2 centuries BC, the tribes that had gone from power formed the Kyrgyz Khanate.

The Kyrgyz Khanate became the main center of the Kyrgyz people. At this time, the first writing appeared.

In the "Manas" epic, you can learn more about the history of the occurrence of the first written language, as well as the customs and traditions of the Kyrgyz people.

In the 5th century, there was the first adaptation to a sedentary lifestyle. By the 10th century, the Kyrgyz Khanate included the whole Mughal, southern Siberia, Baikal, Talas, Issyk-Kul, and a small part of Kashgar.

A century later, the Kyrgyz people have saved only the territory in the south of Siberia, in the south-west of Mongolia and the Altai.

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, they lost another part of the territory. People have started to move to the Tien Shan Mountains.

In 1863, the northern part of Kyrgyzstan joined the Russian Empire, and in 1876, the southern part joined the Russian Empire too.

In 1918, Kyrgyzstan became part of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In the autumn of 1924, it was decided to form the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast.

Kyrgyzstan gained its independence only after the collapse of the USSR. It was August 31, 1991.

On May 5, 1993, the Constitution of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan was adopted and the national currency, called "Som," was introduced on May 10, 1993.

On March 24, 1991, there was a famous "tulip revolution" in the Kyrgyz Republic. The Revolution overthrew the ruler, who had ruled the country for 15 years. It was Askar Akayev, and in its place was Kurmanbekova Bakiyev. Five years later, he met a similar fate.

Roza Otunbayeva, the Republic of Kazakhstan's interim governor, was appointed today. By the way, she was the leader of the Revolution during a conflict between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.

Kyrgyzstan now occupies a significant place in world history. In this country, ancient civilization with architectural and historical monuments is intertwined with modern buildings. Customs and traditions, passed over one hundred years, have found their place in the modern Republic of Kyrgyzstan.

General information about Kyrgyzstan.

Kyrgyzstan is a territory where high mountains occupy a large part of the territory. It is home to a large number of rare animals, as well as the country's rich flora. The lakes with crystal-clear water, waterfalls, and Mountain Rivers attract lovers of nature.

One of the main natural attractions of Kyrgyzstan is the Issyk-Kul Lake. In addition, this land preserves a large number of ancient monuments and architectural structures.

The Suleiman Mount (or as residents call it here, Solomon) is a sacred relic of woods and walnut groves of Arslan Baba, a caravan-serai of Tash Rabat, the medical sources of Burana Tower and much more.

Thanks to the historical tour of Kyrgyzstan, you will have the opportunity to walk along the paths of the Great Silk Road, visit interesting and beautiful natural surroundings, and learn about the ancient customs and traditions of this nation.

General information

Location: in Central Asia's northeast.

198.5 square kilometers in size;

The population is 5,663,100 people.

Capital: Bishkek;

Kyrgyzstani state, Russian official

Religions include Islam, Orthodox Christianity, and others.

Som is the national currency.

In 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic gained its independence and was considered an independent sovereign state. Power is divided into three branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. The supreme power belongs to the bicameral Parliament and the President.

The Kyrgyz Republic Flag

The flag is red. At its center is a yellow sun and a Kyrgyz yurt in the sun.

The flag of the Kyrgyz Republic was adopted in 1992.

Red symbolizes courage and valor, the sun-wealth and peace, and a yurt-the world.

The Emblem of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan:

The Emblem of Kyrgyzstan was adopted in 1994. It was created by S. Dubanaev and  A. Abdraev.

In the center of the emblem are depicted the spurs of Ala-Too and the Issyk-Kul Lake; the sun rises over them. Also, there is a falcon with outstretched wings.

The Falcon symbolizes the independence of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, the sun, wealth and life.

The country is located in the northeastern part of Central Asia and is covered by the Tien Shan and Pamir-Altai mountains.

The Republic of Kyrgyzstan shares borders with Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and China.

In the Republic, there are more than 2,000 artificial reservoirs and lakes and more than 28,000 rivers.

The main cities in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan are Bishkek (the capital), Osh, and Karakol.

The climate in the country is considered to be sharply continental, but in an area near the Issyk-Kul lake, the climate is closer to the sea.

National holidays

1 of January - New Year;

On January 7, Orthodox Christmas,

On March, 21 - Nooruz;

On May 1, International Workers' Day,

On May, 5 – the Constitution Day;

On May, 9 – the Victory Day;

On August, 31 – the Independence Day.

Muslim holidays are "Orozo Ait" and "Kurman Ait". These days are considered public holidays.

The official currency in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan is the Som. You can exchange dollars and euros for the local currency in the exchange offices and banks. Also in the country are accepted Visa cards.

You have the right to import and export currency from the country in unlimited quantities. The most important thing is to declare this amount.


The population of Kyrgyzstan.

It is estimated that the current population of Kyrgyzstan is equal to more than 6 million people.

The indigenous people of Kyrgyzstan are the Kyrgyz. They accounted for more than 72%. The second is Russian, followed by nationalities such as Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Tatars, Germans, and others.

Uzbeks mostly occupied land in the Fergana Valley in the southern part of the Republic. They can be found in Osh (49%) and Uzgen (90%).

The main part of the population lives in the major cities of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, while a small part of the population lives in the villages. Also present were nomadic herders.

When the Republic gained independence, in the cities of the country, more events took place, due to which friendly relations were established between all ethnic groups living in Kyrgyzstan.

Kyrgyzstan's national currency is the Kyrgyzstani soum.

On May 10, 1993, the Republic of Kyrgyzstan adopted a national currency, which was named "som."

One som was equal to a hundred tyiyn.

The first issues of banknotes were in denominations of 1, 5, and 20 soms.

Today, som banknotes are represented in such denominations as 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 5000 soms.

Each banknote is different from the others by image and color. They represent the most outstanding personalities in the country.

In hotels, tours, entrances to parks and health resorts, payment is accepted not only in soms, but also in dollars and euros.

This is done for tourists’ convenience, as sometimes travelers have enough time to exchange currency in exchange offices.

Banks in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan are open from 9:00 to 17:00 every day, excluding weekends. Almost all of the city's streets and hotels have ATMs.

In the exchange offices, you have an opportunity to exchange Russian rubles, dollars, euros, British pounds, tenge, and Uzbek sums.

It is better to have new banknotes in dollars if you need to exchange them, as the older bills have a much lower exchange rate.