The nature of the Republic of Turkmenistan includes walnut and juniper forests, high mountains and ancient volcanoes, bottomland tugais, riparian forests, the sands of the Karakum Peninsula, and green oases. In addition, there are thousands of rare plants, animals, insects, deep caves, nature reserves, lakes, waterfalls, hollows, and gorges.
The climate of Turkmenistan is sharply continental. Within the day, the temperature reaches its mid-point of +30–32 °C, while in winter it can drop to -5 °C.
There are reserves in Turkmenistan such as Repetek, Kugitang, Krasnovodsk, and Badkhyz.There are the resort areas, namely, Bayram-Ali, Firuza, Mollakara, and Archman.
The balneological sanatorium called "Turkmenbashi" is located in the southeastern part. People come here to cure various diseases of the heart and kidneys.
The mud balneotherapy sanatorium "Mollagara" is situated in the western part of the country, and the climatic spa resort "Archman" is in the foothills of the Kopet Dagh.
Mollagara is a unique mud treatment sanatorium located in the western part of Turkmenistan.
At present, in the Republic of Turkmenistan, there are many caves of different depths and belonging to different periods. Some of them are considered very ancient and deep.
For instance, Karlyuk caves (which are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List) include more than 60 caves, which are located on a territory of more than 50 kilometers. They represent the whole maze of halls and galleries.
A cave Kov-Ata Lake has hydrogen sulfide. The most ambitious colony of bats in the entire territory of the country lives there.
On the territory of the Republic of Turkmenistan, there are a considerable number of large and small lakes. For example, Sarakamysh Lake is considered the biggest lake, whose area is equal to 2,200 kilometers. Here it was created, the Sarakamyshsky reserve.
The underground lake Kov-Ata occupies an area of 1050 square meters; its depth is equal to 6 m, and the water temperature reaches + 33 °C (or + 37 °C).
Mollagara is a salt lake that reaches a depth of up to 1.5 km. It also operates the famous mud-treatment resort.
Pink Crater LakePorsygel has mud-volcanic origins, as it is located in the crater of a very ancient mud volcano. Its water has a pink hue.
On the territory of the Republic of Turkmenistan, there are a significant number of waterfalls. The most beautiful is considered Nokhur Great Falls. It flows down from a height of 30 meters. A lot of attention is also attracted to Kyrkgyz, Umbadere, and Koshtemirskie waterfalls. This is a beautiful Kyrkdzhulby tract located in the Karakum desert. Archabilskoe valley sprawls along the banks of a mountain stream, Firyuzinki, and the no less picturesque gorge, Mergenishan, near Lake Sarikamis.
Karakum is a sandy desert that has an area of 350,000 sq.km. It starts from the Kopet Dag mountain range and reaches the Caspian Sea and the foothills of the Pamir.
The Sahara Desert has numerous sand dunes composed of red sand. Here you will find oases and lakes, but under their sands are hidden massive amounts of groundwater. In addition, it crosses the deserted Karakum Canal.
The climate here is considered severe. In summer, the temperature reaches 50 °C, and the earth is heated to +80 °C. Winter frosts have reached - 30 ° C.Precipitation can be observed only in November and April.