Samarkand is the second largest city in Uzbekistan.
Samarkand is one of the ancient city in the world, which is considered a central part of the Sogdiana state. The Great Silk Road has been ran via Samarkand for more than two thousand years. It was the point of trade relations between Europe and China.
Samarkand was the center of science and culture in the medieval East. In the 14th century, this city was the capital of the Timurid dynasty and the empire of Tamerlane.
Previously, the city of Samarkand had another name. It was called Sogdiana and Marakanda.
Scientists believe that word “Samarkand” origin from Turkic word – “Semiz Kent”, which means “rich settlement.” That knowledge historians and scholars based on Chinese sources.
Samarkand is one of the most ancient cities in the world. It was founded around the 8th century BC and considered the same age as Rome.
The very first time this historical Uzbek city was mentioned in the chronicles of historians from Greece and Rome. They called this city as Marakanda.
In the 4-5 centuries, the city has remained under the authority of kidaritov and Chionites. In the 6th century, it was conquered by Hephthalites.
In 567-658, Samarkand become the center of Sogd reign. The city was dependent on the West-and Turkic khanate.
In those times the official language was Sogdian. However, often “flashed” words that have been borrowed from the Turkic language.
When Turkic dynasty of Karakhanids rules the city, in Samarkand has been erected first mosques and madrassas. The most famous in those days was madrassas of Ibrahim Khan tamgachis, which was built in 1040-1068 years.
Ibrahim ibn Nasr Tabgach Khan was the first ruler of the West Karakhanid khanate. He built a madrasa and free hospital for all citizens. During his reign, in the city worked and lived many famous poets, scientists and historians.
In 1212, was a revolt of Osman after that Samarkand bacome a part of Khorezmshah state. In 1220, the town was completely plundered and destroyed by Genghis Khan.
During Timurids reign, Samarkand reborn from sleeping districts to capital of Tamerlane’s empire.
At that period were built many madrassas, monuments, schools and cultural centers. These times scientists call the “period of the highest development” of the city.
Trade and craft blossomed. Began to build different workshops where talented artists and masters convey students their secrets and skills.
Constantly, has been constructed new architectural monuments, mosques, palaces and tombs. Amir Timur tried again to put together all scientists, poets, writers and musicians who have left town in period of decline.
There were erected a mosque Bibi Khanum, Gur Emir mausoleum Shadi-Mulk-aka and many other architectural monuments.
After Amir Temur, Ulugbek ascended to the throne. The city became the center of world science.
Ulugbek continued the “tradition” of Timur and built a large number of university and observatory. He was able to unite the best scientists together.
Samarkand remained the capital during the reign of Sheibani Khan and Kuchkundzhi Khan.
Architectural construction continued. The city gradually built up with new scientific and Muslim buildings.
Under the rule of Sheibanids was built the famous Sheibani Khan madrasah.
After the 17th-century atmosphere in the city has changed dramatically. Buildings were suspended. Over time, because of the earthquake and rain most of the mosques come tumbling. Nobody engaged in their reconstruction and renewal.
Today, Samarkand is a developing city and considered the cultural and industrial center of Uzbekistan.
In 2001, Samarkand was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
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